School Finance 101
Topics: either scroll down or click on the following link:
- The Basics
- Student Count and Average Daily Membership (ADM)
- What is the Legislative Role When Changing a School Finance System?
- The Effects of School Spending on Educational and Economic Outcomes Evidence from School Reforms - Study released 1/1/2015
- CSFP School Finance Booklets & Briefs - presentations to House and Senate Education Committees, CASB Convention New School Board members.
- Office of the State Auditor, School Fiscal Health Reports 2009-2015
- What are property taxes, state and local share, and mill levy overrides?
- CSFP Presentations
Link to Mission Possible Colorado: www.missionpossibleco.com.
CSFP video series Colorado: Did You Know?. Two short videos describing Colorado's K-12 funding impacts on K-12 students, districts and our state.
Timeline of Colorado's School Finance & Education Reform FY 2016-17 to 1980's - August 2016 update
Colorado State Budgeting Process infographic - Beginning in FY2016-17 through FY2017-18 budget cycle.
CSFP presentation on School Finance - an Introduction and Overview to the 2018 Table; What were the goals of the 1994 School Finance Act?; The Order Revenue is Collected; Evaluating the Success of the 1994 Act; Categoricals; Steps in Changing to a New System; Stay Tuned.
The Principles of School Finance: What is a School Finance System? How does Student Count fit in?
School Finance is More Than a Formula or a Number highlighting the
- Background of school finance,
- Revenue (where does it come from, goal of 1994 act, today's mills),
- 2015-16 Discussions and Options.
CSFP Quick Facts on School Finance Formulas.
K-12 Per Pupil Funding and National Average Chart comparing Colorado per pupil funding to the National average 1970 - 2011 using NCES data, Gallagher, TABOR, and Amendment 23 passage also noted. Chart provided by Great Education Colorado.
Colorado School Finance Myths and Facts, contributed to and complied by a group of Colorado school district Chief Financial Officers.
Sample District Budget Calendar Cycle - updated for 2015-16 Budget
Mill Levy Overrides between 2009-2013 - Between 2009 and 2013, Colorado experienced the Great Recession and the beginnings of an economic recovery. To help balance the state's budget, the Colorado State Legislature first instituted Mid-Year rescissions, and then created the Negative Factor. During this time period 40 of Colorado's 178 districts passed a mill levy override (MLO), while 138 did not. Mill Levy Overrides between 2009-2013 is a one-page overview of the impact of having the capacity/not having the capacity to pass a MLO, the wide variation of how many dollars 1 mill can raise, and the impact to district budgets.
SB 10-008 called for a feasibility study of implementing a new student count method for school district funding based on Average Daily Membership (ADM). Study and report completed by the CSFP, Augenblick, Palaich & Associates and University of Colorado Denver.
Average Daily Membership study (powerpoint) presentation to Joint Senate and House Education Committees
Average Daily Membership (ADM) report - January 7, 2011
Where to Begin When Changing A School Finance Formula? - Legislative Role. How do School Finance and Educational Reforms fit together? What approaches can be used to measure costs? How to use the results of a study?
Study (Northwestern University & University of California) released on 1/1/2015. Purpose of Study: To understand whether, how and why school spending affects student outcomes. Findings: Researchers found that increased per-pupil spending, induced by school finance reforms narrowed adult socioeconomic attainment differences between those raised in low-income and high-income families. They find that money does matter and that better school resources can meaningfully improve the long-term outcomes of recently educated children.
CASB Convention December 2015: New Board Member Training:
- Making Sense of the School Finance Landscape Powerpoint (PDF)
- Making Sense of the School Finance Landscape booklet - July 30 updated version (PDF)
- School District Cost Structure
CASB Convention Dec. 2013, School Finance 101, New Board Member Finance Brief (12 page booklet).
Presentions to the House and Senate Education Committees and other committees as noted. Booklets contain a variety of information about School Finance, some history, current student information, School Finance 101, Costing Out information. Booklets are 16 pages long.
- Feburary 2013: CSFP presentation to House and Senate, School Finance 2013 booklet
- March 2012: CSFP and Augenblick, Palaich & Associates booklet, Overview of School Finance and Where to Begin when Changing a School Finance Formula? Legislative Role, House and Senate Education Committes.
- April 2011: CSFP presented an overview of the Colorado School Finance Project, House and Senate Education Committees.
- December 2010: Colorado School Finance booklet prepared for the Colorado Reform Roundtable.
- June 2009: 2009 School Finance Interim Committee booklet , 2009 School Finance Interim Committee.
- January 2009: CSFP's School Finance booklet, House and Senate Education Committees
State Share of Funding by District: includes total state dollar amount, per pupil and percent of funding, as of 2009-10 (most current available). The State Share in the chart does not include Categorical Program funding. Source: CDE, Public School Finance
Office of The State Auditor: School Fiscal Health Reports beginning in 2009. (Note: Appendix C maps do not include a date on them, if printing them separately you might want to write the dates on the maps)
- May 2015 School Fiscal Health Report - FY 2012, 2013, 2014
- Appendix C: Map of districts with 2 or more warning indicators (Note: maps do not have dates)
- July 2014 School Fiscal Health Report
- Appendix C: Map of districts with 2 or more warning indicators (NOTE: printed maps do not have date on it)
- June 2013 School Fiscal Health Report
- August 2012 School Fiscal Health Report
- August 2011 School Fiscal Health Report
- September 2010 School Fiscal Health Report
- August 2009 School Fiscal Health Report
- Map not available for 2009 report
CSFP School Finance presentation on local revenue to the TAG (Technical Advisory Group) of the School Finance Partnership (SFP). December 2012.
CSFP presentation at the 2012 CASB Conference - The School Finance Puzzle - December 2012
CSFP presentation to University of Denver (DU) class on School Finance - August 2012
Listen to an informative discussion on Planning for Colorado's Future in Education - Guests Tracie Rainey, Denny Hill, and Charlie Brown discuss school finance on MileHiRadio's The Leaders Edge Show, August 9, 2012. Click here and then scroll down to August 9, 2012, and click on the MP3 link.
CSFP and Augenblick, Palaich & Associates presentation to House and Senate Education Committees: Overview of School Finance and Where to Begin when Changing a School Finance Formula? Legislative Role
CSFP presentation at CASE Conference 2011: Ups & Downs, What's Up with School Finance.